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Ventricular septal defect – congenital heart defects common in children

Article get expert advice by Phd, dr. Nguyen Luong Tan – Head of department of cardiology, Heart center, hospital, international Vinmec Central Park

Ventricular septal occupy 15 – 20% of the total number of cases of congenital heart disease. Disease ventricular septal influence many to health and the comprehensive development of the child with many dangerous complications such as growth retardation, heart failure, stasis blood, lung infections, pulmonary hypertension… and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

1. Disease ventricular septal defect what is it?

Disease ventricular septal or there abbreviated name in English is VSD, is a form of congenital heart disease the most popular today.

In the human body, the two ventricles are the main two compartments in the lower part of the heart and they are separated by the septum. In which the left side of the heart will usually pump blood with great pressure and contains more oxygen (than the right) off the aorta to feed the entire body. Ventricular septal defect is exist 1 or more holes is located on the septum between the two ventricles this. If the hole is large it can cause heart failure, lung injury do not recover and lead to death.

2. Ventricular septal symptoms like?

The symptoms of ventricular septal your baby often appear after a few days, a few weeks after birth. With a newborn there is ventricular septal defect small hole will have no symptoms. Young with a vent large, long days may cause purplish lips and nails from lack of oxygen, fingers, legs, live drumstick of black blood from the right ventricle goes through the vents mixed with red blood side interior left (Eisenmenger syndrome).

The symptoms of ventricular septal defect in children, including:

  • Skin, lips and nails are always in a state of cyanosis due to lack of oxygen.
  • Poor diet, not gain weight.
  • Baby breathing, fast breathing or shortness of breath.
  • Baby is always in a state of fatigue, weakness.
  • Baby having difficulty breathing when eating or when crying.
  • Feet or tummy of the baby is swelling.
  • Heart palpitations or irregular heartbeat.

3. Causes and complications of ventricular septal defect in children

Ventricular septal defect in children often has no obvious cause, possibly due to irregularities in the process of developing heart of the baby in the fetus. During pregnancy the mother is infected with the Rubella virus, device, diabetes, drugs, alcohol, or other stimulants be considered as the cause of diseases congenital heart defects. The complications of ventricular septal defect in children include:

● With ventricular septal defect small hole at least when there are complications, children still living and normal development.

  • Ventricular septal big hole has many dangerous complications such as:

    • Malnutrition: malnutrition is often accompanied by heart failure, recurrent infections, poor diet.
    • Pneumonia: lung infection recurrences, with clinical manifestations such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, pull intercostal muscles, draw concave tits, young bored eating.
    • Heart failure congest: Due to the increase in blood flow through the heart to the lungs that the heart has to work more than usual. Long day heart dilatation, stasis of blood and can’t pump blood efficiently, does not meet the needs blood for the parts of the body. The symptoms of heart failure due to ventricular septal defect in infants, such as shortness of breath or sweating when feeding or exertion, fast breathing, pull, breathe, scream, even when resting.
    • Pulmonary hypertension heavy with Eisenmenger syndrome
    • Other complications such as arrhythmias, obstruction of cerebral vessels or brain abscess.

4. Methods of treatment of ventricular septal

The progression of the ventricular septal very diverse. Therefore, the treatment will need to be based on the factors such as hemodynamics, age, lesion anatomy, pulmonary artery pressure response of patients with treatment.

Currently, there are 2 methods of treatment of ventricular septal privacy include: open heart surgery and intervention, close the ventricular septal defect through the skin.

Currently, the FDA (agency management food and drug the United States) only allows performing interventions close the ventricular septal defect through the skin on the patient through small parts, in a ridge or a complication of myocardial infarction.

Specify close the vent with open-heart surgery depending on the location, size, hole information, the patient does not respond to medical therapy, or have diseases of the heart congenital other comes.

The case after surgery, has not surgery or without surgery need complications of infective endocarditis.

Treatment of ventricular septal likely completely cured of the disease if it is detected early and treatment was correct in the medical facility prestigious. Hospital international Vinmec have center heart circuits with specialist pediatric cardiology assume the function of examination, ultrasonography, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and rehabilitation cardiovascular for pediatric patients.

The faculty has successfully conducted many heart surgeries, including in children under 5 kg, and the newborns suffering from heart defects in which there is disease ventricular septal. Cardiology children’s hospital Vinmec has a team of specialists, rich experience, great reputation in medical therapy, surgery, interventional cardiology by applying many techniques currently most advanced in the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the cardiovascular.

The faculty are linked a comprehensive cooperation with the cardiovascular Institute of the Bach Mai hospital, University Paris Decartes’s hospital Georges Pompidou (France), University of Pennsylvania (Usa)…

You can demand advice and make an appointment can contact AT HERE.


    Why fungus Aflatoxin in food mold to cause cancer?

    Aflatoxin usually are in the food mold is a toxic fungi that is produced naturally by some species of Aspergillus (a type of mold). In addition to causing acute poisoning (doses of about 10mg can be deadly), the mold Aflatoxin and is considered the cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer.

    1. Mushrooms Aflatoxin what is?

    According to research materials of the Bureau of food and drug (FDA) of the United States, mold Aflatoxin operation is very durable with heat. The peanut moldy is roasted with very high temperature will make the mold spores be destroyed, but their toxins still not completely destroyed. Therefore, when moldy it should be discarded, whether processed at high temperature, then eat to still be dangerous.

    Toxins Aflatoxin is known to be one of the pathogens of liver cancer most powerful when the diseases absorption of Aflatoxins through the mouth will cause the body contains a total amount of 2.5 mg of Aflatoxin for a period of 90 days and can lead to liver cancer after more than 1 year.

    2. Why fungus Aflatoxin in food mold to cause cancer?

    Use food container mold Aflatoxins to cause cancer, however many families still do not understand is this problem with simple thinking is just rub and dry for most mushrooms are all toxic and can be used so many who “procession of the disease to the body”.

    In fact, mold Aflatoxins not only toxic because of survive in dry food mold, but also in the persistent of it. Aflatoxin was born, in the form of chemical, so it will not be lost when processed at a temperature of hot or boiling temperatures of 1000 degrees C. scientific Research has shown that, want to remove a part of toxins Aflatoxins are required to a temperature higher than the boiling temperature (temperature roasting, drying from 1500 degrees C to more than 2000 degrees C).

    The toxins Aflatoxin to penetrate into the human body will be the liver metabolized to form the intermediate epoxide activation or hydrolysis becomes M1 less toxic. There are at least 13 types of Aflatoxin different in nature, in which Aflatoxin B1 is the shape unique. Aflatoxin G1 and G2 produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 is produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins M1, M2, is produced and detected in the milk of cows when they eat right foods that contain mold aflatoxin.

    Any kind of animal which can be toxic aflatoxin. Adult then there is resistance, better should be its resistance to better, also for children when ingested food contain mold aflatoxin will develop and slow growth.

    Aflatoxin when absorbed into the body will attack the main organ is the liver, so it causes liver disease, cancer is mostly. People infected with the toxin aflatoxin , perennial high-risk cancer of the liver and gallbladder cancer.

    3. Concentrations of Aflatoxin as what is safe?

    According to the regulations of the United states, the function of mold Aflatoxin in food animal husbandry and food are FDA recommended safe include:

    • For animals reared for milk or for other purposes, the nuts used for pet, wags and feed (except the flour from cotton seed and corn): 20 (ppb).
    • For nuts used for breeding animals, corn or poultry have grown: 100 (ppb).
    • With respect to the type of grain used for pig meat from 100 pounds upwards and corn: 200 (ppb).
    • For cottonseed meal intended for beef, pork and poultry, with respect to the type of grain used for cattle the final stages and corn: 300 (ppb).

    According to regulation of Vietnam: Vietnam Ministry of health health regulations the content of Aflatoxins maximum limits (ML):

    • Type B1 in the food: 5 ML (micrograms/kg).
    • Type G1, G2, B1, B2 in food: 15ML (µg/kg).
    • Type M1 in milk: 0.5 ML (micrograms/kg).

    4. How to detect people infected with Aflatoxin

    Along with the development of medicine, then there are currently 2 ways that can help testers detect the level of infection toxins aflatoxin in humans:

    • The method of calculating the amount of complex AFB1-guanine in the urine.
    • The method of calculating the amount of complex AFB1-albumin contained in the serum.

    To the present time, there is no drug which can treat specific toxins aflatoxin. However, the absolute stay away from the foods that contain mold aflatoxin and building diet with full of green vegetables can help reduce cancer risk.


      Stroke – dangerous complications of vascular malformations brain

      Those who suffer from frequent headaches, signs of dizziness, need to go check because there may be vascular malformations of the brain – disease causing stroke very fast.

      1. Disease, vascular malformations, brain

      Malformations of cerebral vessels is a congenital disease, develop from the fourth week to the eighth week of pregnancy, causing the arteries more direct connection with vein through the capillary network intermediary, so the majority of vascular malformations brain can survive in the brain that less what are the symptoms.

      2. Dangerous complications of vascular malformations brain

      Malformations of cerebral vessels developed over time, exist without symptoms for many years and is discovered primarily in the age of 45 back down in 3 situations: bleeding brain (50-60%); headache, epilepsy (40-45%) or incidentally discovered (5-10%). Some patients are detected quite late (60-70 years old).

      Estimate the proportion of people suffering from malformations of cerebral vessels is 18 in 100,000 people.

      Complications vascular malformations of brain includes:

      • When not broken: Patients with manifest chronic headache, medical therapy do not help, are these seizures type epilepsy. The case size lesions deformity may cause pressure on the brain and cerebral ischemia, cause polio and hand, foot, and… However, the disease may have no symptoms, only to be discovered accidentally when tomography, magnetic resonance or angiography of the brain.
      • When broken: This is complications the most severe of the disease, it will cause stroke, brain bleeding brain, often bleeding in the brain tissue, can bleed intraventricular or a combination of, very rarely subarachnoid bleeding. Symptoms of sudden, acute with the degree of severity varies with the manifestations such as severe headache, vomiting, nausea, increased blood pressure, consciousness may be normal, or lethargy, even coma, palsy hemiparesis, difficult to speak or not to speak is…

      About 2/3 of cases of this disease will suffer a stroke before the age of 40. Each year, approximately 4 out of 100 people who have vascular malformations brain will hemorrhage. When hemorrhage risk 15-20% risk of death or stroke, 30% have mental illness, 10% mortality.

      3. What to do when the patient suffered a stroke and discovered broken blood vessel malformations, brain?

      Each type of stroke the brain is diagnosed and treated in a different way. Patients whose expression is brain stroke should be taken immediately to hospitals on the nearest to be examined, handled the emergency, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular and CT brain emergency.

      If there is bleeding in the brain, the doctor will determine the type of bleeding the brain and predict causes in order to handle properly and timely. If the bleeding parenchyma of the brain due to rupture of small vessels on patients with hypertension, stucco, fiber arteries it would not have to take blood vessels the brain.

      Conversely, if the thought of bleeding due to diseases of the blood vessels of the brain, then the need to move patients on as soon as possible to take brain vessels (DSA) and interventional emergency treatment.

      4. Treatments for vascular malformations, brain

      The doctor will give the best treatment for you and this will be determined by the size of the malformation and position of it. There are 3 methods of treatment include:

      Obstruction intravascular (Endovascular embolization)

      In this technique, the doctor will insert a long thin tube into the leg artery and threaded through the blood vessels to the brain under the instruction of radiology images. The catheter is placed in one of the arteries nourishing to the blood vessels deformed and injection fluid embolism, such as small particles, substances like glue, microcoils or other materials, to block arteries and reduce blood flow in vascular malformations. Obstruction intravascular less invasive than traditional surgery. It can be done alone, but usually used before other treatments another surgery to make the procedure safer by reducing the size of the vascular malformations, or reduce the likelihood of bleeding.

      The casual form larger and complex structures is usually combination therapy methods. With these cases, doctors often button circuit in advance to reduce the size deformity, then surgery open surgery or radiation.

      Depending on the condition and vulnerability of each patient, method and treatment plan will be chosen the most appropriate way.

      Radiation treatment

      This way is also known as surgery, radiation or radiosurgery. An X-ray beam, a narrow focus on defects stars for high-dose targeting in arteriovenous malformation of the brain and the rest of the brain is much lower doses. This radiation makes malformation of brain vessels, brain, and closed at intervals of 2-3 years in 80% of patients. The risk of complications of this procedure low. Until vascular malformations brain is completely closed, then the risk of bleeding still.


      This is the oldest method to treatment of vascular malformations of the brain. Defects is cut off in the surgery room by anesthesia. Opening the skull, clamping and cutting the blood vessels malformations. Often applied when the malformation rupture caused intracranial hematoma, or mass deformed to cause signs of neurological. The risks of surgery is usually high with respect to malformations of cerebral vessels located in the deep in the brain have important functions.

      Besides, there is another option is to do nothing and just monitor the disease. Your doctor may recommend follow-up if they feel the treatment is not safe or detect the disease when you are older.

      Neurologist – Medical doctor and Internal medicine – hospital international Vinmec Da Nang is the only treatment of vascular malformations of the brain with many outstanding advantages, such as: There are many various medical specialties, our team of experienced doctors about the field of intensive systems, modern equipment.

      Doctor dean is Dr. – dr. Ton that Tri Dung has nearly 30 years of experience in specialized neurological stroke with many awards in scientific research. Private interfering brain circuits, the doctor had done 6 years and every year shooting, and intervention about 480 – 500 ca.

      Doctor Dung ever been trained in specialized neurological and abroad, engaged in teaching at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue, and holds many important positions at Hue Central hospital.

      You can demand registration, examination, treatment of vascular malformations of the brain at hospital international Vinmec Da Nang can contact AT HERE.

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      [Video] the importance of diagnostic tests before birth

      All pregnant mothers are keen to have 1 healthy pregnancy and square the circle mother. Therefore, the screening prenatal screening is 1 of the important elements of a product can capture the health status of the fetus and help the doctor make a decision to intervene before or after birth if the baby has these defects or gene abnormalities and minimize the risks to the baby born healthy.

      In addition to the information shared about the role of the test prenatal diagnosis, Doctor, Thai also helps pregnant mothers to better understand:

      • The factors that cause fetal defects
      • The technical screening filter ago includes what?
      • The timelines standard in ultrasound? The ultrasound screening defects can affect the fetus?
      • The meaning of the test results, prenatal screening to help control the risk how?
      • Vinmec are applying these techniques to pre-screen, you ask?
      • The mother is HIV can be diagnosed by way to know the fetus is infected with HIV?
      • Test chromosome is what?

      ThS.BS Thai is Chief of obstetrics and gynecology, general hospital, international Vinmec Nha Trang, with experience of over 14 years in specializing in obstetrics, prenatal diagnosis and assisted reproduction. Your doctor is the one who is trained first about ROBOTIC Surgery gynecology and is a member of the Society of ultrasound obstetrics and gynecology in the world.

      Test NIPT is a screening method for the prenatal non-invasive effective is the doctor at the general hospital, international Vinmec consultation with the pregnant women, helps to detect the abnormalities number and structure of chromosomes of the fetus in pregnancy. Thanks to the method of prenatal screening non-invasive based on DNA testing of the fetus in the mother, the doctor can detect is malformation of the fetus from 9 weeks of age instead of having to wait up to 12 weeks of age as before this, at the same time reduce the risk of miscarriage than with amniocentesis usually.

      For more information about tests of fetal malformations NIPT can come directly to the hospital Vinmec or call 0899.648.761 to be supported.


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        11 how to protect your digestive system best

        Diseases, digestive disorders, flatulence, heartburn, nausea, constipation or diarrhea occurs regularly will cause the influence to life. Change diet and lifestyle help protect the digestive system healthy.

        1. Do not use canned food

        Many refined carbs, saturated fat and additives contained in canned foods are related to an increased risk of digestive disorders.

        • The food additives include glucose, salt and other chemicals, have proven to be contribute to increased intestinal inflammation.
        • Trans fats trans fats are in processed foods not only has a negative effect on the health of the heart, which also leads to ulcerative colitis.
        • Bottled beverages often contain artificial sweetener (xylitol), substance is said to increase the number of harmful bacteria to the intestinal tract. This also becomes the cause that leads to bloating, diarrhea and some digestive problems other.

        On the contrary, the diet with fresh food, clean and rich in nutrients will protect you against the disease digestive disorders. Limit the use of canned and processed is the way to ensure optimum gastrointestinal health.

        2. Supplement more fiber

        Fiber is very beneficial for the digestive system. Three types of fiber common are: soluble fiber, insoluble, and prebiotic.

        • Soluble fiber: Helps to absorb water into the stools making them softer, thereby preventing constipation effective. is found in oat bran, legumes and seeds.
        • Insoluble fiber: acts like a brush, giant, help clean intestines, eliminate all waste and feet are in the digestive tract. Vegetables, cereals and wheat bran are good sources of fiber insoluble be trusted.
        • Prebiotic: A form of fiber has the task of bringing beneficial bacteria, which helps intestinal health. Similarly, prebiotics are present in many fruits, vegetables and cereals.

        A diet rich in fiber frequently have been proven to help promote peristalsis and reduce the risk of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including: ulcers, reflux, hemorrhoids , or appendicitis.

        3. Don’t forget to add healthy fats

        Healthy fats just help feel easily digested than after a meal, just improve the ability to absorb some nutrients dissolve in fat. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids can reduce the risk of diseases of the bowel diseases and digestive disorders. Food contains many omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial include flax seeds, chia seeds, and especially walnuts, as well as the fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines.

        4. Provide a sufficient amount of water necessary

        Dehydration is a common cause of constipation. Experts recommend drinking 1.5-2 liters of water each day to prevent this condition. In terms of hot weather or for people with exercise – sports, they need additional amounts of water much more than that.

        Besides water, you also have to provide fluids for the body by herb tea and other beverages do not contain caffeine.

        Another way to meet the water content required is to eat the fruits and vegetables, berries water, such as cucumbers, zucchini, celery, tomatoes, strawberries, grapefruit and peaches.

        5. Keep spirit comfortable

        The gut and the brain is said to have linkage complex, that what is negative happening in the brain will also bad effect to the intestines. When in a state of excessive stress, the body will secrete the hormone causing blood and energy moving out of the digestive system. Stress is said to be related to health problems such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, constipation, and irritable bowel.

        Control stress, yoga or sitting meditation has been proven to just help relax the mind, relaxed thinking, just have the effect to improve the symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome and the disease digestive disorders.

        6. Focus when eating

        If not, focus your attention on the meal, you are easy to eat too much and too fast, this can lead to bloating or indigestion.

        Studies have shown that chewing slow and focused enjoy a meal can reduce the symptoms in people with ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

        Don’t forget to turn off the TV and put away phones as well as mobile devices when eating to help prevent digestive problems as common as indigestion, bloating.

        7. Eat slowly chew thoroughly

        Fact, the process of digestion began in the mouth. When chewing as long as the saliva secreted as much. Saliva has the role supports the digestive 1 part food in the mouth and become liquid to help mix food in the stomach before moving on the small intestine in a smooth way.

        While chewing is not carefully related to the reduced absorption of nutrients, then the opposite, chewing food thoroughly will help prevent the symptoms such as indigestion and heartburn. Moreover, action chew slowly even is proven to help reduce stress, and this also has the ability to protect the digestive system.

        8. Positive physical movement

        Regular exercise is one of the best ways to consolidate health for the digestive system. A gentle stroll after meals can help food move through the digestive system easily.

        The study showed that healthy people have a moderate exercise, for example cycling and jogging, make time intestinal transit increased by almost 30%. On the other hand, walking 30 minutes per day significantly improves symptoms in chronic constipation. In addition, exercise also has anti-inflammatory, thanks to its ability to reduce compounds that cause inflammation in the body, thereby preventing inflammation of the intestines.

        9. Slow down and listen to your body

        If no capture signal hunger and satiety of the body you will easily eat too much, then is to feel bloating, abdominal bloating and indigestion.

        Many people believe that when the stomach is full, then it takes up to 20 minutes after the new brain realized it and ordered control you stop eating. Although science still has not proven accurate, but the fact is it takes a period of time to the hormone satiety or hunger from the stomach to secrete to be with the brain.

        Therefore, should take the time to eat slowly and pay attention to the serving just enough with yourself is a way to prevent the digestive problems such as indigestion and flatulence. Also, eating according to emotions also have a negative impact on the digestive system. Instead of eating when you are anxious, relax before a meal can improve the unwanted symptoms of digestive disorders.

        10. Abandon bad habits

        Everyone knows bad habits such as smoking, drinking too much alcohol, and eating late at night is very harmful for general health. However, the behavior on is also responsible for a number of digestive problems.

        • Smoking:

        Work almost doubled the risk of acid reflux. This bad habit also related to gastric ulcer, causing inflammation of ulcerative colitis or cancer of the gastrointestinal tract progresses more severe. Always remember that quit smoking cigarettes would bring a lot of benefits.

        • Drinking:

        Alcohol causes stomach acid production increases, which can lead to heartburn, reflux or stomach ulcers. Drinking too much alcohol also causes gastrointestinal hemorrhage, enterocolitis, and damage to gut bacteria are beneficial.

        • Eating late at night:

        Sleeping after eating late at night will lead to heartburn and indigestion. The reason is because the body needs time to digest, as well as need gravity pull food have food moving at the right direction. When you lie down, the gastric juice will rise up and cause heartburn or reflux symptoms. After eating, should wait 3-4 hours to have time for food moving from the stomach to the small intestine should go to sleep.

        11. Supports the intestines the nutrients

        A number of nutrients necessary for healthy digestive tract include: probiotics, probiotic, glutamine and zinc.

        • Probiotic:

        Is beneficial bacteria for the intestinal tract, improve indigestion, flatulence, as well as the symptoms of constipation and diarrhea. Probiotics are found in fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kim chi, yogurt, and is formulated in the form of capsules includes a mixture of strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

        • Glutamine:

        Is amino acid protection intestinal health and is proven to have the ability to reduce intestinal permeability (leaky gut) in people with severe disease. Can supplement glutamine in foods like turkey, soy, eggs and almonds. Should consult your doctor before choosing the form of direct drinking active substance glutamine.

        • Zinc:

        Is a very important mineral for healthy intestinal support, treatment of diarrhea, colitis, leaky gut and other digestive issues. Zinc deficiency can cause you to suffer from digestive disorders. As recommended, the amount of zinc necessary to replenish daily is 8 mg for women and 11 mg for men. Foods rich in zinc include shellfish (seafood), beef and sunflower seeds.

        In summary, for those who are experiencing the disease, digestive disorders, changes in diet and a healthy lifestyle can help improve this situation. In it, a menu with fresh food, clean, rich in fiber, healthy fats and nutrients is the first step to having healthy digestion.

        Besides, pay attention to eat slowly chewing thoroughly, reducing stress and exercise will also bring many benefits. Finally, abandon the bad habits affect digestion like smoking, drinking too much alcohol and eating late at night will help to reduce the symptoms when suffering from digestive disorders.

        Article reference source:

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          What factors affect the cholesterol levels in the blood

          Cholesterol in the blood increases will adversely affect the body, especially the cardiovascular system. The factors affecting cholesterol is diet, mobility, weight, lifestyle and other factors other fixed.

          1. Cholesterol in the blood is what?

          Blood Cholesterol is a fatty substance always present in the blood cells. Cholesterol in general is always present in all the cell types of the body and is an important component to create a membrane structure, a number of endocrine factors (hormones) and plays many roles other important functions of the body.

          However, if there is too much cholesterol in blood is major risk factor leading to coronary disease (underlying cause heart attack levels) and stroke. Blood Cholesterol increased is a condition that occurs when the concentration of blood cholesterol in high levels.

          Cholesterol can come from two sources: From the synthetic body and from the food that you eat. The liver and some other cells of the body is where make up about 75% of blood cholesterol and the remaining 25% is due to food supply.

          2. “Bad” Cholesterol and “good”cholesterol

          Cholesterol naturally can not dissolve in blood, so that to save more is through your blood, cholesterol must be surrounded by a layer of protein coat in particular, or also known as lipoproteins. There are 2 types of lipoproteins is important:

          • Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL): Professional shipping most cholesterol in the blood of the body. When there is too much LDL in the blood, the arteries will deposition of fat, causing atherosclerosis, is the cause that leads to the cardiovascular disease danger. Therefore, LDL is considered “bad”cholesterol, need to lose go.
          • Lipoprotein high density (HDL): in Contrast to LDL, HDL has the task of taking cholesterol out of the blood and prevent them do not penetrate into the artery wall, thereby limiting the formation of atheroma. Thus, HDL is considered “good”cholesterol, need to increase more.

          There are many different factors that affect the levels of both bad cholesterol and good cholesterol.

          3. The factors that affect cholesterol

          3.1. The diet drink

          Animal fats, fast food, carbonated water, or all kinds of food contain too much energy will make increase concentrations of LDL and increased total cholesterol. Diet is a major cause atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular accident… so, to combat the increased “bad” cholesterol, should build a sensible diet as follows:

          • The amount of cholesterol feeding on: do Not exceed 300mg/day. Use vegetable oil and animal fats, in balanced proportions, appropriate for each age. Eliminate fatty foods, avoid eating organs of animals.
          • Protein: Should make up about 12 – 15% of the total energy of the whole diet, including beef, pork tenderloin, lean chicken, beans. Fish is good food for people suffering from dyslipidemia and increased cholesterol in the blood. Should combined eat both vegetable protein and animal.
          • Sugar powder: Takes from 60 – 70% of the total energy of the ration. Restrict food too sweet the amount of sugar in day a maximum of 10 – 20g. Use cereals in combination with potato.
          • Additional vitamins, minerals, trace elements and fiber mainly from vegetables, fruits, rice.

          3.2. Overweight, obesity

          Body mass index (BMI) is used to get the body a person is skinny, fat, or balance. BMI is recommended to be between 18.5 to 22,9. BMI from 23 and above is considered overweight, easily lead to increased cholesterol in the blood.

          3.3. Lack of physical activity

          Maintenance mode active, exercising regularly will increase HDL and lower LDL.

          3.4. Genetic

          A number of the genes in the family have the ability to govern how the digestion and processing of cholesterol. This inadvertently affects the concentration of cholesterol in the blood.

          3.5. Age and gender

          As well as genetic, age, and gender as the factors affecting cholesterol does not change or impact to be. Blood Cholesterol in both 2 world usually begins to increase at age 20. Most women before the age of menopause will have lower cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After menopause, LDL levels tend to rise and cardiovascular risk also increase, respectively.

          3.6. Smoking reduces HDL

          Bad habits such as smoking, alcohol, stimulants are the factors affecting cholesterol most common, but can from get. Moreover, the smoking cessation, alcohol also helps the body to better health and type minus one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

          To prevent cholesterol in the blood increase, from after the age of 20, should be performed check cholesterol every year 1 times and starting at age 50 should be checked every 6 months for the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL. Based on tests, the doctor can give advice to adjust diet, increase physical activity or treatment with specific drugs if necessary.

          Hospital international Vinmec provides level for client package Management outpatient diabetes – hyperlipidemia for the purpose of assisting customers check out screening the cholesterol levels as well as the disorder, glucose tolerance or blood sugar disorder when hungry….

          Customers can directly to the health system, Vinmec across the country to visit the clinic or contact us here for assistance.

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            Hepatitis C: Don’t neglect!

            Hepatitis C type hepatitis caused by virus, can be transmitted when the blood of people infected with the hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone not infected. About 70-80% of those who suffer from hepatitis C without any expression.

            1. Symptoms of hepatitis C

            After hepatitis C virus in the body, they have the incubation period is quite long (about 7 – 8 weeks), following phase this is the period of onset. The case of hepatitis C acute, usually have distinctive symptoms, only to find there are a number of clinical symptoms as follows:

            • Headache, fatigue, and has a number of manifestations just like the flu.
            • A number of cases have manifested disorders of the gastrointestinal tract such as anorexia, abdominal pain, pain news the right upper quadrant (the area of the liver).
            • Click interstitial intercostal 11 – 12 right side the patient will feel discomfort, pain news. The reason for the pain is due to liver swelling, inflammation, makes the outer membrane of the liver is stretch.
            • Stock yellow eyes, yellow skin, urine colored water as robusta due to liver inflamed make the path of bile in the liver injury and make pigment bile stasis stagnation.

            However, the above symptoms sometimes only mild illness, not to be overlooked, though the liver are in the inflammatory phase very heavy. Stage of disease development can last about 6 – 8 weeks, then the disease will go away without treatment. However, the case of only 15 – 30% of cases. The rest will become healthy people carry the hepatitis C virus (i.e., after 6 months the body is not excreted by the hepatitis C virus) or transformed into people with hepatitis C, chronic.

            2. Hepatitis C is contagious?

            Hepatitis C is typically transmitted when the blood of people infected with the hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone not infected. Today, most people infected with this disease is due to shared use of needles or other paraphernalia to inject drugs.

            Hepatitis C Virus can be transmitted according to the path below:

            • Sharing needles or other paraphernalia to inject drugs with a person who has hepatitis C virus;
            • Medical staff suffer needlestick while working;
            • You were born from mother who carries virus of hepatitis C;
            • Shared some items with the person carrying the hepatitis C virus (such as razors, toothbrushes,…);
            • Sex with carriers of the virus hepatitis C.

            However, there is no evidence that infected with hepatitis C virus due to mosquito bites or insect bites. Because the disease does not have pronounced symptoms, so most patients don’t realize is that they were infected and could unknowingly let the disease spread in the community.

            However, very easy to spread and has many dangerous complications, but hepatitis C is curable if detected early, treatment the right medication and the right way. Treatments popular today is that the drug inhibits the virus in combination with interferon new generation.

            2. Harmful effects of hepatitis C

            Cirrhosis of the liver

            Complications first of hepatitis C not to mention cirrhosis of the liver. Many people believe that cirrhosis of the liver occurs due to alcohol-but any condition cause liver damage for many years can cause cirrhosis of the liver and form scar tissue. Scar tissue will take a long time, about 20-30 years to liver damage leading to cirrhosis. If the condition cirrhosis of the liver not treated properly, the risk of liver failure is very high.

            When the liver is cirrhosis, due to hepatitis C virus cause will hurt the healthy cells that make up the scar and create the fibrous tissue. They slow the flow of blood through the liver, causing stasis of blood in the veins of the digestive system. In the early stages of cirrhosis often only the expression is very vague, such as fatigue, loss of appetite or mild pain in right abdomen, but sometimes don’t have any expression whatsoever. A common complication of liver cirrhosis is portal hypertension, in which increased pressure in the portal vein, where help transport blood between the organs of the digestive system and liver.

            Liver failure

            When is cirrhosis of the liver due to hepatitis C, if untreated, the disease will progress increasingly more serious, because the scar tissue due to the virus causing continued development for liver function, impaired walking, long gradually lead to liver failure. Liver failure is manifested by the signs very serious, such as jaundice, yellow eyes, pissing up, limb swelling, ascites, personality changes.

            Cirrhosis and liver failure due to hepatitis C virus is the very serious complication and the antiviral treatment is working extremely necessary and important to dispose of the virus to prevent the complications and when was cirrhosis, liver failure, then liver transplantation is the method recommended for use.

            Liver cancer

            In addition to complications of cirrhosis and liver failure hepatitis C virus also causes liver cancer. This is a late complications and the most dangerous of diseases of liver bile. When infected with the hepatitis C virus, the risk of liver cancer won 12 times compared with those not infected and in fact liver cancer usually occurs in people with cirrhosis.

            Besides, the elements have the effect of increasing the risk of liver cancer due to hepatitis C, including alcohol abuse, smoking, HIV infection, obesity, high content of iron in the liver.

            Other complications

            Hepatitis C in addition to attack and destroy the liver, the complications of the disease also affect other parts and other systems in the body. Because while infected with hepatitis C virus then the can form antibodies to combat, the resistance can this create the reaction caused the harm to other organs of the body such as kidney damage, numbness, tingling, and pain due to nerve damage, joint pain, skin rashes, ulcers. In addition, hepatitis C can also increase the risk of developing other diseases, including diabetes mellitus, depression…

            At general hospital, international Vinmec Hai Phong technical Ultrasonic elasticity of liver tissue to help accurately assess the degree of liver fibrosis/progression for the hepatitis C cause.

            Ultrasonic elastic tissue of the liver is technically non-invasive, accurate assessment of degree of liver cirrhosis, cheap price. Technique of ultrasound tissue elasticity liver at Vinmec Hai Phong has many advantages such as:

            • System ultrasound machine LOGIQE 9 modern. This is a system of ultrasound images powerful and flexible meet wide range of needs, visits general. With advanced capabilities, intuitive, LOGIQ E9 enables you to use professional tools to get great photos and help to make visits convenient
            • New technology using Shear Wave : this is a technology that allows measurement of elastic energy of the model in a qualitative manner and quantitative through the color-coding along with the value of the elasticity in units of pressure Kpa.
            • The measuring of the elastic demand model using Shear Wave allows users to actively staking survey on ultrasound image. Images obtained during the survey can easily be marked and tracked.
            • Doctor professional experience: – dr. Doan Xuan Birth; Doctor, CKI Nguyen Dinh Hung; Dr. – Doctor of The

            To learn more about the technique of ultrasound tissue elasticity liver in a general hospital international Vinmec Hai Phong, You can contact our HOTLINE: 0225 7309 888 or book online HERE.

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              Early detection of preeclampsia by testing factor tan create vascular PLGF in the first 3 months of pregnancy

              Article is professional advice by: Master. Doctor Do Thi Hoang Ha – Doctor in biochemistry – laboratory Science, hospital ĐKQT Vinmec Hai Phong

              Preeclampsia is a syndrome of pathological pregnancy body serious in pregnancy, is the cause of many obstetric complication, and the most that can threaten the lives of both the pregnant woman and the fetus.

              1. What is preeclampsia?

              Preeclampsia (also called toxemia) is a serious disorder that usually develops after week 20 of pregnancy, is manifested by symptoms such as edema, high blood pressure and protein levels in urine increase.

              Preeclampsia extremely dangerous because it causes many severe consequences for both the mother and the fetus:

              • Complications for mother:
                • Complications in the central nervous system: cerebral edema, eclampsia, cerebral hemorrhage – meningitis.
                • Ocular complications: blindness due to the influence of the retina, brain edema, arterial constriction.
                • Complications in the kidney: tubular necrosis, acute renal failure, acute renal.
                • Complications in the liver: hemorrhage under the liver capsule, which can rupture the liver, intra-abdominal haemorrhage, liver failure.
                • Complications in the heart: heart failure level.
                • Complications in the lungs: probable acute pulmonary edema (meet in preeclampsia can be severe).
                • Complications blood coagulation disorders: thrombocytopenia, hemostasis scattered in the circuit.
                • Chronic hypertension, chronic kidney inflammation.
              • Complications for the fetus:
                • Fetal growth retardation in the uterus (50%)
                • Fetal death in the uterus.
                • Premature birth (40%) due to severe preeclampsia
                • Perinatal death (10%): the rate of perinatal death increase if there are complications, placental abruption, premature labor.

              In addition, preeclampsia can progress to severe and rapid when progression of syndrome HELLO appearance. This syndrome includes: hemolysis (Hemolysis), elevated liver enzymes (Elevated liver enzymes), platelet reduction (Low platelets).

              2. Is there any way early detection of pre-eclampsia?

              Previously, preeclampsia was only diagnosed primarily based on the clinical symptoms like edema, hypertension, proteinuria and also only diagnosis is the earliest start in week 20 of pregnancy. However, before the dangerous complications of preeclampsia causes, the need to have a new method that can early diagnosis of preeclampsia is becoming increasingly necessary.

              Recently, two elements are of particular interest is PLGF and sFlt-1. PlGF (Placental Growth Factor – factor developed placenta, or also called factor tan create blood vessels) plays an important role in creating blood vessels, the placenta, also sFlt-1 (soluble fms – like tyrosine kinase 1 tyrosine kinase 1 soluble form similar to the fms)) are the receptor elements of cell development, endothelial soluble, have a role resistance to tan create blood vessels. The study indicated in the blood of pregnant women suffering from preeclampsia, PlGF and sFlt-1 modified pretty early before appearance of clinical symptoms.

              In women with normal pregnancy, the concentration of PLGF and sFlt-1 changed over the period of gestation as follows: PLGF increased gradually and reached the peak at mid-pregnancy and then up until before birth, also sFlt-1 is relatively stable in early pregnancy and increased in late pregnancy.

              For pregnant women at risk of preeclampsia, the concentration of sFlt-1 increased in the blood of pregnant women, on the contrary the concentration of PLGF decreased in comparison with pregnant women normal gestational age, respectively. Therefore, can quantify the concentration of PLGF, sFlt-1 and the ratio sFlt-1/PLGF to early diagnosis of pre-eclampsia from 12 weeks of pregnancy (that is, can detect pre-eclampsia when pregnancy first 3 months).

              Finding out the relationship between PLGF and sFlt-1 for preeclampsia meaning extremely important. The pregnant women now completely able to detect early pre-eclampsia to take treatments timely, avoid the unfortunate complications can occur for both the pregnant woman and the fetus.

              With the desire to bring for the expectant mother the comprehensive care and safety for mother and fetus during the process of before – during – after birth, hospital, international Vinmec with facility and equipment are modern investment in Vietnam, our team of experts rich in experience in implementing the maternity services package integrates the entire process of examination and necessary tests.

              Test quantify the concentration of factor tan create blood vessels in the maternity Package a 12 week can make the pregnant women complete peace of mind before the fear of pre-eclampsia.

              Customers can directly to the health system, Vinmec across the country to sign up for the program, maternity care package , or contact us here for assistance

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                Herpes (herpes) genital pregnancy: What you need to know

                Herpes genital (genital Herpes), is a disease of genital infections due to Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) triggers. Disease Virus when enters the body will cause many negative effects to the health of pregnant women, so experts recommend that you learn about diseases genital herpes to take measures to prevent and handle if needed.

                1. Genital herpes what is?

                Genital herpes is a disease transmitted sexually (STD). This STD causes sores herpes – these blisters, pain, (swelling filled with fluid) can break off and flow free. About 16 % people in age from 14 to 49 suffering from this STD.

                2. Causes genital herpes (genital herpes)

                Two types of herpes simplex virus cause genital herpes: HSV-1 (commonly causing disease of the lips) and HSV-2 (usually causes genital herpes).

                The virus enters the body through the mucous membrane. The mucous membrane is the thin layer of tissue lining the openings on the body. They can be found in the nose, mouth and genitals.

                Once the virus was in the body, they will combine into the cells and then remain in the nerve cells of the pelvis. The Virus tends to multiply and adapt to the environment live very easily, this makes the treatment become difficult.

                HSV-1 or HSV-2 can be found in people with secretions infected with bacteria such as saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions.

                3. Get to know the symptoms of genital herpes

                The appearance of the blisters is considered to be marking the outbreak of a outbreak. The outbreak will first appear as early as 2 days after virus infection, or as late as 30 days later.

                General symptoms in males include blisters on the penis, scrotum, or buttocks (near or around the anus).

                General symptoms in females include blisters around or near the vaginal, anal, and ass.

                General symptoms in both men and women include:

                • Blisters can appear in the mouth, on the lips, face, and anywhere else exposed to the infected area.
                • The the infected area usually begins to itch or tingling before the appearance of blisters actually .
                • The blisters can become ulcers (open sores) and flowing translation.
                • Scabs can appear on the sores within a week after the disease outbreak.
                • The lymph nodes (infection and inflammation in the body) may be swollen.
                • Can suffer from headaches, body aches and fever.

                The general symptoms of baby born with herpes (transmit the disease through normally) include ulcers on the face, other organs and genitals. Babies born with genital herpes can develop very serious complications such as blindness, brain damage, even death.

                So, pregnant women should be notified about the status of the infected with genital herpes during pregnancy tell your doctor to perform the preventive measures of virus transmission to the baby during childbirth. The method usually applied is that the baby will be born through a caesarean section instead of normal delivery through the vagina.

                4. Diagnosis genital herpes

                Doctors can usually diagnosed as genital herpes by examining visually herpes sores. In addition to increased precision, the doctor can give you to perform more tests clinical.

                Blood test can diagnose herpes simplex virus (herpes simplex) before undergoing an outbreak of the disease. Book an appointment with your doctor if think have been exposed to genital herpes, even if you do not encounter any symptoms.

                5. Genital herpes are treated how?

                Treatment can reduce the risk of outbreak of disease, but it can’t cure herpes simplex virus.

                5.1 Drug

                Drug resistant virus can help speed up healing time of ulcers and reduce pain. Drugs used in the treatment when appeared the first signs of an outbreak (tingling, itching, and other symptoms). Those who suffer from disease flare may also be prescribe drugs to reduce the likelihood of disease back in the future.

                5.2 care in the home

                Use mild cleanser when a shower or bath in warm water. Keep the infected area clean and dry. Wear cotton clothes wide to keep the body, especially the genital area is comfortable.

                6. Pregnant women need to do when is genital herpes?

                Pregnant women disease STD often worry about the possibility of infecting the child. Genital herpes can infect the baby through the birth the vagina. So, it is important to tell your doctor if genital herpes in pregnancy.

                The doctor will provide the information you need to know during and after the birth of the baby. They can prescribe the prescription treatment safe during pregnancy to ensure the baby born is healthy. They can also suggest pregnant women choose childbirth over caesarean section.

                Genital herpes also can cause the pregnancy complications as miscarriage or preterm birth.

                7. Disease progression long for genital herpes

                Relationships safe sex and use condoms every time you have sex with someone would help prevent the spread of genital herpes and other STDS.

                There is no cure for genital herpes, but this disease can be controlled with medication. The disease lies in the form of latent (sleeping) in your body until the favorable factors for the disease appear. Outbreaks can occur when you become stressed, sick, or tired. Your doctor will help you devise a treatment plan to help control the disease timely.

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                  Along with cough, there any symptoms warning of lung cancer?

                  Cough is a manifestation will encounter on most of the lung cancer patients. However, this sign also appears in many other diseases. So, to differential diagnosis the disease correctly, in addition to symptoms cough, lung cancer patients also have signs warning any other?

                  1. Cough – common symptoms of lung cancer

                  Cough symptoms merely occur on 75% of cases of lung cancer. However, coughing up new blood is symptoms do patients have to go to hospital. Symptoms of cough in people with lung cancer have the following characteristics:

                  • Before coughing up blood, patients often feel discomfort, palpitations, shortness of breath, feeling hot spread behind the sternum, as heavy as what presses on the chest. The disease, wheezing, sick voice, itchy throat, feeling uncomfortable in the chest; mouth, throat tasted of blood.
                  • Then, the patient began to cough, spit movement, was gurgling out blood from the lower respiratory tract out. Blood coughing up bright red out in or after the cough. Blood foam, the air bubbles are not mixed food, can and sputum.
                  • The amount of blood coughed up can be less, only a few rays of blood mixed in the spit or more (over 200ml). As cough as was gurgling blood, or the blood flow out no escape to get out, freezing in the respiratory tract which clogs up the bronchi making patients flailing and choking.
                  • Period coughing up blood may be short, in just a few days, even in 1 day or lasts for 5-7 days then gradually reduced and stopped completely. There are also severe cases, coughing up blood last the whole month, of each round, each separated by a few days.

                  The most dangerous is blood condition out of control, my blood was gurgling out not hold. The disease can be fatal in young circulatory level due to blood loss more acute. In the case of blood coming out more then have a state of shock due to blood pressure drops. Examination of lungs shows have ran moisture, crackles, ran the bronchi…

                  2. Symptoms of lung cancer other

                  • Chest pain:

                  Half of patients with lung cancer are felt chest pains. Patients often describe feeling heaviness in the chest region. If chest pain and constant is symptoms bad signal status invasive into the bone and the intercostal nerves by tumor. Signs of pain of the shoulder can be symptoms of lung tumor shape Pancoast’s (tumor on top of lung).

                  • Shortness of breath:

                  Patients may manifest disorders of breathing, usually breathing fast and short. A few cases of wheezing due to large tumor clogging the trachea.

                  • Finger-shaped drumstick:

                  Or occur in patients with lung tumor type Carcinoma (carcinoma) cell spikes. Signs fingers drumstick will go away quickly after removal of the tumor.

                  • Hypertrophic osteoarthritis:

                  Join in 4 – 12% of patients with lung cancer. These lesions often occur at the far end of the long bones. These symptoms usually disappear quickly when the tumor is completely removed. However, surgery cut nerve number 10 at the top near the can reduce pain in pathological bone joints, although not removing the primary tumor.

                  • Pleural effusion:

                  Pleural effusion recurred quickly after fisting, smoking is bad sign expression, for status, metastatic to the pleura. Pleural fluid color is signs suspected tumor has metastasized into the pleura.

                  • Syndrome pinched vein home on:

                  About 5% of cases the disease occurs this condition and is the sign of the spreading tumor into the mediastinum. Radiation therapy may give good results with half of the patients.

                  • Hoarseness:

                  Occupy from 1 – 8% of patients with lung cancer. Hoarseness is the result of the phenomenon of tumor invasive directly into the nerves lameness in reverse. Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes neck happens from 15 – 20% of patients and if palpable tumor on the scalene is definitely up to 85%.

                  • Hard to swallow:

                  Happening from 1 – 5% of patients with lung cancer and is the sign just points the tumor was invasive into esophagus.

                  • Enlarged liver:

                  Occurs when there is metastasis of tumor to the liver, there is about 35% of patients die of liver metastases. More rare is the condition pneumothorax when tumors spread beyond the visceral pleura.

                  • The symptoms caused by the hormones:

                  The carcinoma of the bronchi – the lungs often causes disturbances in the endocrine, including intensity glands the adrenal cortex, increases blood calcium and carcinoid syndrome.

                  Endocrine disorders most commonly encountered in lung cancer is Cushing’s syndrome (caused by strengthening the adrenal cortex) met in cancer form cells of barley. The patient has the clinical signs such as mental disorders, or coma due to hyponatremia. Tips for these patients is the need to limit the amount of water use down below 1,000 ml/day and adjust the amount of sodium salt. In the case of cancer cells spikes, the patient may suffer increased calcium blood and mental disorders.

                  • Disease, neuromuscular disorders:

                  Occurs in 15% of cases of cancer of the bronchi of the lungs, especially cancer form cells of barley. Disease neuromuscular disorders can be divided into 2 types, one type is derived from the cause inflammation of the muscles, remaining types of neurological origin which causes loss of feeling and reduced motor control.

                  According to scientific studies, degeneration of the cortex and the transmission path of the spinal cord is the cause of neuromuscular disorders encountered in carcinoma of the lung. Tumors in the lungs, food into the plexus arm and ribs, causing pain to the patient. In this case, the cancer cells are invasive into the mediastinum on the plexus arm and the sympathetic ganglia of the neck. Patients appear the symptoms of pain in the shoulder area, arm, armpit, and syndrome Horner (eye side the lesion was indented in eye, side disease red because of vasodilation).

                  In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, when visiting digital can hear the hiss at the location of the tumor. Symptoms most common is syndrome 3 up: decrease murmur alveoli (at the tumor location); type chisel; vibration stick up ( when is pleural effusion). Can see the lymph node metastases when carefully observed for the supraclavicular, neck and armpits.

                  The proportion of people with lung cancer are on the increase according to the age and speed of industrialization. The majority of cases of lung cancer are not detected early due to expression is not obvious, easily confused with other pathologies. Therefore, when there are any signs suspected to be lung cancer, the patient should visit the clinic at the medical facility credits to get accurate results for the condition of his health.

                  Pack of lung Cancer screening is implemented in general hospital international Vinmec with the diagnostic methods modern images will help accurately detect lung cancer type, remove the confusion, errors in the diagnostic process.

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