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What Are The Factors Of Fetal Weight Gain?

Weight gain during pregnancy is strongly related to the health and weight of babies born. Nutrition, exercise, scientific rest of the mother will help her love to develop optimally.

1. Factors that regulate weight gain during pregnancy

The weight gain in pregnancy of women includes the following factors:

  • Baby: 3,200g - 3,600g
  • Placenta: 500g - 900g
  • Amniotic fluid: 900g
  • The phenomenon of breast enlargement: 500g
  • Uterus: 900g
  • Increase blood volume: 1,400g
  • Body fat: 2,300g
  • Tissue and body fluids increase: 1.800g-3.200g

2. Recommendations on pregnancy nutrition

2.1. The role of proper nutrition in pregnancy

During the baby's period in the fetus, his nutrition depends mainly on the mother's nutrition. The mother's nutrition source will follow her mother's blood through the placenta, to provide for her child. Adequate nutrition helps mothers get good resistance, avoid disease, have enough strength to survive, quickly recover health after birth, and have enough breast milk.

Moreover, mothers who have good nutrition from before and during pregnancy help their babies not get malnourished, prevent pregnancy failure and other conditions such as mental retardation, movement.

2.2. Major energy and nutrient needs

The average energy demand of women is 2,200 Kcal / day. For pregnant women in the middle three months, an average need of an additional energy requirement of 360 Kcal / day is needed, in the last three months, an additional 475 Kcal / day is needed. Adequate supply of energy needs during pregnancy to ensure weight gain for the mother.

In addition, weight gain should be maintained at 0.4kg / week during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy for women with normal weight before pregnancy. For women who were previously low in weight, the rate of weight gain during pregnancy should be kept at 0.5kg / week, while for overweight women this figure should only be 0.3kg / week.

  • Protein: Protein plays a role in the formation of the fetus, placenta, and mother's body tissue. Add protein-rich foods like fish meat, eggs, milk and beans.
  • Fat: The fat is essential in building the cell membrane and nervous system for the fetus, providing energy and being effective in absorbing the oil-soluble vitamins for pregnant women. Pregnant women need to keep fat levels higher than normal.

For fat content, both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids should be used. Saturated fatty acids can be supplemented through coconut oil, palm oil, animal fat, etc. but should not exceed 10% of the energy of the diet. Enhance the use of vegetable oils (such as soy oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, fish fat) to provide a lot of unsaturated fatty acids that benefit the body.

2.3. Needs vitamins and minerals for pregnant women

The need for vitamin and mineral supplements increases for pregnant women:

Calcium

  • Calcium is needed for the fetus to build bones and create teeth. Therefore, daily calcium needs in pregnant women need to increase by 300mg / day and should reach 1000mg / day.
  • Foods high in calcium can be mentioned, such as milk and dairy products, fish, beans and green vegetables. Milk and dairy products, including yogurt, cheese, milk mushrooms (kefir), creams are good sources of calcium for pregnant women.

Acid folic

  • Folic acid plays an important role in the normal development of the body. In the absence of folic acid, pregnant women are more likely to suffer from anemia and erythropoiesis and cause neural tube defects in the fetus.
  • Pregnant women can take folic acid through leafy vegetables, broccoli and white, cabbage, asparagus, fruits like oranges, bananas.
  • The need for folic acid for pregnant women should be higher than normal: about 600 μg / day.
  • Currently, the use of folic acid supplements for pregnant women with a concentration of 400 μg / day is widely applied worldwide. In addition, care should be taken early in the early days of pregnancy and continuously until the 12th week of pregnancy.

Vitamin A

  • The maternal body needs an amount of vitamin A needed to store supplies for the baby and increase the mother's resistance. The need for vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women is higher than normal, about 800 μg / day. However, if the mother consumes too much vitamin A, it can lead to a risk of teratogenicity.
  • Foods rich in vitamin A such as liver, egg yolk, meat, milk, butter, vegetables are green, yellow, red.

Vitamin D

  • Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, making an important contribution to bone formation. Vitamin D deficiency will lead to a risk of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, convulsions due to hypocalcaemia.
  • The main source of vitamin D for the body (up to 80%) is due to subcutaneous synthesis with the effect of sunlight.
  • Foods of animal origin rich in vitamin D include: fish liver, eggs, butter, milk, fatty fish.

Vitamin B1

  • The need for vitamin B1 in pregnant women should be met enough to prevent edema.
  • In order to meet the vitamin B1 level, pregnant women should use unmilled white rice and eat a lot of legumes. Foods that are low in vitamin B1 are processed, such as pure white rice, refined grains and oil and alcohol. Foods that provide a lot of vitamin B1 are pork, beans, vegetables, mold products, yeast and some fish.

2.4. Need for essential micronutrients

Iron

  • Iron is essential for both mother and child.
  • Foods of animal origin such as animal meat and liver contain relatively high amounts of iron and are easily absorbed. In addition, some iron-fortified processed foods, including nutritious flour, wheat flour, fish sauce, shrimp noodles ... are also important sources of iron, helping to prevent anemia for pregnant women. .

Iodine

  • Iodine plays a very important role for pregnant women. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is affecting fetal development. Pregnant women with iodine deficiency increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, or the rate of babies born with mental retardation due to brain damage, low birth weight. Moreover, babies are born prone to congenital defects, such as paralysis, lisp, deafness, dumbness, and squint. Iodine deficiency also leads to the risk of perinatal death.
  • Iodine-rich foods are sea fish and seaweed. However, the use of iodized dietary salt is considered the main solution for preventing disorders caused by iodine deficiency.
  • Iodine needs for pregnant women need to be higher than normal, about 200 μg / day.

2.5. Diet to ensure weight gain during pregnancy

Women should not diet when pregnant. Meals need to provide a variety of nutrients, each day should use at least 15 different types of food to be able to provide adequate nutrients, ensuring the need to gain weight during pregnancy . Pregnant women should eat a lot of fruits and vegetables, because in addition to vitamins and minerals, vegetables also provide fiber, which helps prevent constipation.

Besides, do not use stimulants such as alcohol, coffee, tobacco. Limit the use of spices like chili, pepper, garlic, vinegar. Food processing needs to select fresh, clean materials with high nutritional value, ensuring hygiene and food safety. If the mother suffers from morning sickness, divide it into several meals and spread evenly throughout the day.

In order for the mother to gain weight when pregnant in a scientific way, besides nutrition, supplementing enough essential nutrients for both mother and fetus, pregnant women must also exercise regularly, practice appropriate subjects with health like walking, yoga. This will help with future childbirth, as well as maintaining weight during pregnancy . In the case of pregnant women gaining weight too little or too much, should consult the professional opinion of the doctor for advice and timely adjustment.

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How Fast Can You Get Pregnant After Abortion?

Pregnancy is the pathology of abnormally developed spines. After treatment interventions, patients must avoid pregnancy and long-term follow-up to ensure no malignant transformation. Therefore, it is a question of women who desire to be a mother every day to be pregnant.

1. What is egg pregnancy?

Pregnancy is a pregnancy that still has fertility but is abnormal in the development of spines. At this time, the cultured protozoan is so fast that it interconnects inside the spine together with the uncontrolled blood vessels, degrades, enlarges and becomes water-covered, clumped, filling the heart. supply and overwhelm the whole fetus.

The cause of fetal egg formation so far is unknown. The assumptions have been made that due to lack of nutrition mainly nitrogen deficiency, childbirth at a young age or too old, giving birth to many or abnormal chromosomes in cells cultured in the egg of the fetus and immune disorders.

Most cases of egg pregnancy are benign. However, 15% of all ovarian pregnancies and 3% of part-time pregnancies are at risk of progressing to neoplastic cancer. On the other hand, if not diagnosed early and treated early, the fetal egg causes vaginal bleeding to leak or spontaneously collapse, the uterine wall due to invasive egg pregnancy should be difficult to recover, the risk of high blood pressure, the amount of blood loss is very much and the patient easily falls into shock, blood loss and life-threatening shock.

2. How to diagnose an egg pregnancy?

Women often come to the clinic because of vaginal bleeding. Blood in black or red, irregular flow lasts long, small, persistent. In addition, pregnant women may have more severe morning sickness than usual, have more vomiting than previous pregnancies and last longer even through mid-trimester.

The visit did not hear the fetal heart. The uterine density is soft, not palpable or very difficult to touch parts of the fetus due to compression. The uterus is larger than the gestational age due to overgrowth of the cultured cells, except for the fetus that is degraded, the uterus is smaller than the gestational age. In addition, pregnant women may suffer from edema, high blood pressure, cloudy urine due to loss of protein through the urine. Fast heartbeat, warm hand skin, shaking hands, large thyroid gland and sometimes signs of jaundice, yellow urine ...

Tests showed that ßhCG concentration increased very high, higher than gestational age and increased rapidly. When the ultrasound does not hear the fetal heart, no embryonic images are seen but only spotting is like a picture of snowfall, a bunch of grapes.

3. What is the method of pregnancy treatment for eggs?

The decision to terminate a pregnancy should be made immediately after the diagnosis is confirmed to be an egg pregnancy.

The fetal mass can be removed from the uterus with minimal interventions on the uterus by using a cervical dilator with a suction device to suck the eggs. After that, to make sure no eggs are missing, the doctor will use a heart-shaped, big spoon and blunt spoon. After the procedure, the patient is always prescribed antibiotics to prevent infection.

In cases of ovarian invasion of the uterus, complicated spread or the risk of complications into high-grade neoplasm, the need to specify a prophylactic hysterectomy. For malignant ovarian pregnancies, additional anti-cancer chemotherapy must be followed.

Only cases of young patients who have not had children can consider the issue of egg scavenging for the metastatic, adjuvant attached to retain the uterus. However, after that, the patient needs to be closely monitored, if the conservative treatment is found to be ineffective, the uterus must be removed.

4. How to follow after abortion?

The tissue samples after abortion were sent to pathological anatomical tests to determine the benign or malignant fetal pregnancy.

Usually after 3 to 4 weeks of egg abortion, uterine structure and physiology will return to normal. If the uterus is still large, the vagina is bleeding, the risk of fetal egg complications has been turned into a cancer of the protozoan.

At the same time, hCG levels will also be quantified once a week from curettage until hCG is negative. At this point, the quantitative hCG time will gradually expand if the previous results are negative. Conversely, if hCG levels do not decrease or remain abnormally high, consider the possibility of malignancy.

5. The problem of pregnancy again after sucking the eggs

The good thing about this disease is that the fetus does not affect fertility even after the patient has undergone chemotherapy. Specifically, ovarian pregnancy does not increase the risk of stillbirth, congenital malformations, premature birth and other complications. And the recurrence rate of pregnancy incurred is only 1-2%.

In order to do so, women who want to get the best pregnancy need to delay at least after two years. This is the least time needed to monitor and predict the risk of malignancy. In case of pregnancy before this time, beta levels of hCG will increase again. Accordingly, the doctor will not be able to know whether it is a normal pregnancy or the development of evil chemistry of an egg pregnancy.

To increase contraceptive compliance, doctors need to explain to patients that early pregnancy will increase the risk of recurrence of fetal eggs as well as progression to very advanced fibroblasts. Accordingly, there are cases of reincarnation, miscarriage or miscarriage, making women once more sad and affected by health.

At the same time, patients should also be instructed to prevent pregnancy by methods that do not interfere with the uterus such as using a condom in combination with a day of ovulation or vaginal discharge. Absolutely do not use oral contraceptives or intrauterine devices to facilitate the monitoring after egg abortion.

After the prescribed follow-up period, before pregnancy again, the woman must have a general examination as well as specialized obstetrics and gynecology, some tests must be done, in which the level of hCG in the country must be checked. cottage. Only when the hCG is negative, the decision to become pregnant is somewhat safe.

When you know you are pregnant again, you should have an examination and ultrasound, blood tests more often than a normal pregnancy in the first three months to ensure that nothing is abnormal. Because there is no way to prevent an egg pregnancy in the next pregnancy, the advice is that when you see something unusual, you need to see a doctor right away. As in the case of an earlier pregnancy, especially before 12 months, pregnant women must be examined and monitored very carefully to assess the progress of the disease and immediately intervene if needed.

In summary, egg pregnancy is not common, but it is a serious contagion if not detected early and properly intervened. At the same time, it is also necessary to follow up after egg pregnancy and contraception according to regulations to ensure reproductive health for the next time as well as for yourself.

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How Do You Treat Food Poisoning At Home?

Food poisoning often manifests itself as symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, muscle pain, cyanosis, dyspnea, apnea, convulsions, vascular collapse, unconsciousness.

1. Identify symptoms of food poisoning

When falling into the following situations, you can think about the risk of food poisoning :

  • The person who had just finished eating and started the illness soon after
  • There are two or more people who exhibit similar symptoms after taking the same food, while those who do not eat are not sick.
  • Signs suggesting food poisoning is abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Observe the food for signs of suspicion, such as rancidity, a strange smell, and the appearance of helminths.

The specific symptoms of food poisoning depend on each cause:

  • If the cause is caused by microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) or toxins from microorganisms (bacterial toxins secreted): Patients usually only show gastrointestinal disease (such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea) , may be accompanied by manifestations of dehydration (such as thirst, dry lips), infection (usually fever, sweating).
  • If the cause of food is contaminated with chemicals, there is no natural poison: The patient has complex manifestations, not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also in other organs, such as the nervous system (headache, rapid face), cardiovascular (tachycardia, angioplasty).
  • If the main cause of these foods is inherently toxic: The disease occurs immediately after eating certain foods that in nature are known to contain toxins: for example, cassava, bamboo shoots, Puffer fish, toad, ...

Food poisoning is dangerous if the patient has severe gastrointestinal signs or dehydration, infection, or additional symptoms:

  • Neurological disorders: Especially blurred vision, diplopia, speech difficulties, lisp speech, muscle paralysis, convulsions, headache, dizziness.
  • Cardiovascular disorders: Hypotension, arrhythmia, dyspnea.
  • There is blood or mucus in the stool, little urine, pain in other places outside the abdomen (such as chest pain, neck, jaw, throat).
  • Poor body resistance: Especially in children under 2 years of age, the elderly, people who are taking immunosuppressive drugs (often used in joint diseases, cancer, allergies), people malnutrition, suffering from duodenal stomach disease, liver disease, pigmentation disorder.

Typically, acute symptoms of food poisoning will appear only a few minutes, a few hours or within 1-2 days after food poisoning. Food poisoning in severe forms that can lead to death, mild also causes fatigue, physical and mental exhaustion for people with the disease. Therefore, self-protection is the first necessary measure to think about, in which the provision of some important knowledge about first aid steps when food poisoning is essential.

2. The first aid for food poisoning

When you see yourself or your relatives, people around you are having symptoms of food poisoning as above, it is necessary to calmly perform the following first aid steps:

  1. Induce vomiting (if the patient does not show vomiting): To limit the toxin from food absorbed into the body, the first aid measure for food poisoning is to stimulate the poisoned person to vomit the food being in the stomach go out. It is possible to wash your hands and then place them on the patient's tongue to stimulate vomiting. Patients need to vomit as much food in the stomach as possible. During the course of inducing vomiting, the patient must be placed on his or her side, the head is slightly elevated so that the vomit waste is not refluxed into the lungs, does not cause excessive stimulation to cause choking to the patient. In case of a coma food poisoning, it is not advisable to induce vomiting because it will cause choking and suffocation.
  2. Give the patient plenty of water and rest: After the patient vomits and goes outside continuously, the body will lose a lot of water. Therefore, it is time to conduct water compensation for patients. For "food drink poisoning", you can use filtered water, oresol solution or roasted rice water to compensate for lost water.
  3. Call an ambulance at the number 115 or bring the patient right at the nearest medical facility: Because although the first aid was done, the patient may still be at risk and complicate at any time. So, people with poisoning need help and follow-up from medical staff.

Other actions should be taken when detecting and providing first aid for food poisoning :

  • Keep a sample of suspect food, including label information, even specimens emitted from the sick person to help determine the cause of the poisoning.
  • In case there are many people suffering from food poisoning: Need to notify the nearest medical facility, preventive health agency or local government where the incident occurred so that medical facilities can timely meet the standards Sufficient human resources to cope in the case of food poisoning occurs in series, the authorities can promptly inform and prevent further poisoning.

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Helicobacter Pylori-Things You Need To Know

HP bacteria (Helicobacter pylori) is a type of gastrointestinal bacteria that develops primarily in the stomach of humans. HP bacteria can cause chronic chronic stomach pain, ulcers, or even stomach cancer.

1. What is HP bacteria?

  • Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a bacterium that grows in the gastrointestinal tract and tends to attack the stomach lining.
  • HP bacteria that produce catalase destroy the lining of the stomach, causing damage to the stomach and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancer ...
  • According to statistics, the prevalence of HP bacteria in Vietnam is quite high, about 70% of the population.

2. How is HP bacterium structured?

HP bacterium is a gram negative bacteriophage, There are 3-5 fry.

  • HP bacteria are able to survive in concentrated acidic environments.
  • HP bacteria live mainly in the stomach environment and stick to the stomach lining.
  • HP bacteria was discovered in 1982 by two Australian doctors Robin Warren and Barry Marshall.

3. How is the HP virus spread?

  • Oral: The eating habits of Vietnamese people: sharing bowls and chopsticks ..., moms use their mouths to eat rice, food for children makes HP bacteria follow saliva from one person to another.
  • Polluted environment, poor sanitation: Water sources are polluted. Mice, cockroaches, flies ... carry bacteria into food
  • Tools that have not been tested sterile will create a risk of transmission.

4. Diagnose HP infection?

4 ways to test for common HP bacteria are:

  • Endoscopy and biopsy: Endoscopy assesses the level of inflammation and injury in the stomach. Biopsy position: 2 pieces in the cavity and stomach position.
  • HP test.
  • Stool test by immunofluorescence reaction.
  • When HP infection -> The body will produce HP antibodies -> Test for antibodies in the blood.

5. How to prevent HP infection?

  • Hygiene and prevention of living places: Sanitation of water, food and shelter.
  • Wash your hands when eating and drinking.
  • Healthy eating habits: Eating hygienically, eating boiled and drinking, not smoking alcohol ...
  • Check for HP bacteria when there are signs of gastrointestinal illness and a doctor's indication is needed to promptly eradicate infection to avoid family members.
  • When there are people infected with HP in the house, it is recommended to use separate chopsticks, clean bowl and clean bowl, avoid infection.
  • Medical examination and treatment, endoscopy at prestigious facilities ensure sterility.

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