Monthly Archives: Tháng Ba 2018

What’s The Difference Between Whooping Cough And A Regular Cough?

Because the body is still weak, children are very susceptible to some respiratory-related diseases, but many mothers still do not distinguish some common respiratory diseases in children such as pneumonia, common cough and Whooping cough. This has major consequences in the hospital for treating children.

Here are characteristics to help parents can distinguish pneumonia, common cough with whooping cough in children:

1. Pneumonia

In children with pneumonia, there are often the following symptoms:

  • Rapid breathing is a sign of the highest diagnostic value of pneumonia . According to WHO standards, children under 5 years of age breathe rapidly as follows: breathing rate of 60 times / minute or more for children under 2 months of age; breathing rate of 50 times / minute or more for children 2 months - 12 months old; 40 breaths per minute or more for children 1 - 5 years old. Parents or caregivers can count the breathing rate when the child is still or when sleeping and must count in 1 minute, want to get accurate results, count 2-3 times.
  • Thoracic retraction is also a sign of pneumonia diagnosis . To detect this sign, look at the lower part of the chest (lower third) concave when the child inhales. Note that, when only the software between the ribs or the upper bone area is concave, it is not a sign of drawing the concave chest. On the other hand, in children under 2 months of age, if the concave chest is only slightly withdrawn, there is no classification value because the chest of young children is still soft and weak, so when breathing normally, it can be slightly withdrawn. Therefore, in these children, the concave chest is strong (deep concave and easy to see) to be valid for diagnosis of pneumonia .
  • High fever and wheezing may be in older children with Mycoplasma pneumonia. But this symptom is also easily mistaken for asthma without a chest X-ray. Symptoms of nasal bloating, moaning, poor feeding, irritation and abnormalities in lung examination vary depending on the age of the child and the severity of pneumonia.
  • Symptoms such as breast-feeding, wheezing and purple center may be suggestions of hypoxia, but these symptoms are not highly sensitive and specific.

2. Common cough

Coughs often have mucus, in addition to runny nose, sore throat, watery eyes, and loss of appetite. Just the common cold, which can last 1-2 weeks, the heaviest (and most contagious) is the first few days. Children often suffer from an average of 6-10 times a year. Because colds are caused by viruses, antibiotics won't work.

If your baby is too young to blow his nose, he or she should use a specialized nasal saline and nasal suction tube to help remove mucus, help the baby to relieve the itching of the nose, throat irritation and cough. Humidifiers and humidifiers are also useful at this time.

In addition, you must ask your doctor before giving your child any prescription-free medication, and do not forget to ask if your baby's age can be coughed up.

3. Pertussis

Whooping cough is an acute respiratory infection, usually in young children. Whooping cough is highly contagious, causing almost 100% disease in sensitive individuals with contact droplets containing bacteria. This is a disease that belongs to the national vaccination program when the baby is 2-3-4 months old and repeated at 18 months.

Whooping cough bacteria attack the respiratory tract mucosa, causing severe inflammation, narrowing the airways. Children who are not fully vaccinated are at high risk of whooping cough.

However, babies are the highest risk. Children under 6 months old are not strong enough, so whooping cough is not very clear, so it is difficult for parents to detect. Instead, when a whooping cough can last to the peak, the baby will vomit, temporarily stop breathing, and the lips may turn purple because the baby does not receive enough oxygen.

Disease whooping cough will happen in three main phases

At an early stage, the patient coughs for 1-2 weeks with symptoms of an unclear upper respiratory tract infection such as a runny nose, a mild cough (mostly coughing at night). At this stage, to diagnose different pertussis is difficult due to symptoms of pertussis similar to flu manifestations, common respiratory infections.

At the full-time stage (from the next 1-2 weeks), the patient begins to cough more, coughing every long, choking episodes. After a child coughing often flushes or cyanosis both due to a cough that does not have enough oxygen to breathe, gradually causes respiratory failure. It is also the fierce coughs that make children tired, exhausted, and anorexic, leading to malnutrition.

The third stage of pertussis is the recovery period, the child's coughs are shorter, the number of coughs decreases.

Treatment of pertussis

For children under 6 months old, parents need to take the baby to the hospital for inpatient treatment and follow-up at a special emergency room. For older children and uncomplicated whooping cough, they will be treated with specific antibiotics for 10-14 days as directed by the doctor.​

Parents absolutely do not arbitrarily use antihistamines, expectorants, cough suppressants, tranquilizers, ... to treat pertussis for children because they are both ineffective and easily cause side effects.

Families with infants with pertussis can be treated with Erythromycin 30 - 50mg / kg / day, 4 times or Cotrimoxazol 30 - 50mg / kg / day; taken with Salbutamol 0.2mg / kg / day; Prednisolon 1 - 2mg / kg / day. Note that do not give Cotrimoxazol to babies.

In addition to using drugs, parents also need to pay attention to the process of caring for babies with pertussis by:

  • Use physiological saline oral hygiene and nasopharyngeal for babies, keep personal hygiene for children.
  • Keep your body warm to avoid sudden chills.
  • For babies, just breastfeed. For older children, children should be given adequate nutrition to avoid physical weakness and help children increase resistance, quickly recover their health. Parents should feed their babies easy-to-digest foods, which can be divided into many small meals, feeding them many times a day to help them eat more easily. Also don't forget to give your baby plenty of water to avoid dehydration.
  • Avoid having whooping babies exposed to kitchen smoke and cigarette smoke because it will make the illness worse. Keep your baby's environment clean and airy.

Disease pertussis likely spread very high, should be isolated, to avoid contact with young people. Adults who take care of children with pertussis need to use antibiotics to prevent infection and avoid the risk of disease and spread.



What Are The First Signs Of Perimenopause?

Pre-menopause is the time when the hormones in the body begin to decline, affecting the health and physiology of women. So the determination of premenopausal age in women usually starts from how much and how premenopausal is early will help women to recognize this stage early to improve in time.

1. What is premenopausal?

Pre-menopause is a pre-menopausal period in women, when the female hormone estrogen is greatly reduced causing the first symptoms of perimenopause disorder.

Postmenopausal is the period before a woman's menopause. In women postmenopausal there will be changes in the levels of estrogen and progesterone - two female hormones that are produced in the ovaries. But at this stage, ovarian activity begins to decline and there is an imbalance in the female hormones, causing the menstruation to be irregular and lasting for days.

 Hormonal changes can lead to symptoms such as hot flashes, vasomotor disorders ... that can last for months or years after the woman has no periods. During this time, the woman's menstrual cycle may be disordered - losing her period of time and then having it again.

If you have no menstrual period for more than 12 months (except for postpartum cases), you are most likely in menopause. Most women go through the period before menopause is called pre-menopausal age , there are many changes in both reproductive and psychological functions, causing many troubles for women as well as families. .

Pre-menopause is a natural rule that is hard to avoid. Along with the decline of female hormones, the amount of free radicals is also born at a faster rate, causing the phenomenon of overall aging in women. At that time, women will face degradation in beauty, physiological and health.

2. What is the premenopausal age?

Typically, the start of perimenopause in each woman is different because each person is physically different. However, according to statistics, most women face premenopausal age at age 40-47.

The premenopausal stage is short or prolonged depending on the endocrine in each body, some people only suffer from this period of 2-3 years but there are also people who have to struggle for 7-8 years.

The pre-menopausal marker is terminated when a woman enters menopause - determined after 12 consecutive months without menstruation. Even so, there are many cases of unpleasant symptoms from premenopausal and health problems that can continue to progress during menopause.

3. What is early menopause?

However, not everyone has premenopausal age . There are early menopause, late menopause and also premenopausal people of normal age.

The normal age of premenopausal age and is called menopause at the right age is around 50 years of age, pre-menopause occurs before 2-5 years. Ie pre-menopause occurs at age 40 - 47 years old. Still premenopausal early as pre-menopausal condition occurs before the age of 40. If at this age that the woman does not have menstrual cycles, then this time is called perimenopause early. Late menopause is premenopausal that occurs after age 60.

Private comment about money early menopause also saw the premature aging or premature ending cycle of women. Early menopause is a sign of premature genitalia and early sexual endocrine organs. Because premenopausal failure occurs when there is a decline in female sex hormones.

The low level of two female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone have changed the body. This suggests that the internal body has unusual changes, especially on reproductive organs. These unusual changes are not beneficial for the body. This means that premenopausal premature can cause certain health effects.

The signs of premenopausal are similar to the signs of a normal premenopausal period, only it occurs earlier, before 40 years of age.

Who premenopausal soon also face other hazards. The most important system is that the risk of cardiovascular disease is much greater than that of people with normal menopause. Not only that, they are also more susceptible to disease and more likely to die. They will also be at increased risk and level of osteoporosis caused by premature menopause.

They will be osteoporosis sooner, heavier and more prone to fractures than regular women. Dental diseases are also more common and cataracts can be very severe in some people.

4. Signs of pre-menopause in women

Women can easily identify whether the perimenopause has "knocked on the door" or not based on the following signs:

  • Menstrual disorders: When entering premenopausal age , women will find their menstrual cycles become erratic, months of months, less menstrual cycles, even loss of menstruation; the amount of menstrual blood becomes less; the number of days stretched, ...
  • Drought, decreased libido: Premenopausal women often suffer from desire loss, vaginal dryness, reduced pleasure and difficulty in orgasmic vaginal mucosa dry and atrophy, vulnerability or bleeding easily. The decline in estrogen causes the vagina to dry out, the amount of fluid secreted is less, the elasticity of the "little girl" also decreases.
  • Fires, or irritability: According to statistics, about 75% of premenopausal women suffer from erratic heat from mild to severe, accompanied by persistent sweating, especially at night.
  • Frequently encountering sleep problems: Many women in pre-menopausal age complain about sleeplessness, insomnia, sleeplessness, ...
  • Melasma, dullness, dry, wrinkled skin, hair loss: When estrogen is reduced, the skin becomes thinner, less elastic, dry and clear wrinkles. At the same time, melasma, dark spots and freckles also appear on the skin more. Besides, the hair loses its pigmentation and turns to grizzly.
  • Risk of cardiovascular and osteoarthritis diseases: Decreased estrogen levels increase the risk of cardiovascular and osteoarthritis by protecting the heart, preventing atherosclerosis, helping to bind calcium and bones. Anti-osteoporosis is the task of estrogen.
  • Urinary tract infections: You may notice signs of urinary tract infections such as urination, urination, pain during urination, ...