• Home
  • Archive: Tháng Mười Một, 2017


Monthly Archives: Tháng Mười Một 2017

Careful When You Have Slow Periods, Lower Abdominal Pain

Usually, if 35 days from the menstrual period but still not having the menstrual period return, it is called menstrual delay. Late menstrual periods with abdominal pain are most likely to have an ectopic pregnancy, and should be examined promptly.

1. Learn about the phenomenon of delayed menstruation, abdominal pain

1.1. What is menstruation?

Menstrual delay (menstrual delay) is an abnormal manifestation of the menstrual cycle in women. It is a phenomenon that has reached the period of menstruation but still does not have the appearance of menstruation. When you are over 35 days from the menstrual period of the previous cycle, you still do not have your period. If you don't have your period for 3 consecutive periods, it's called amenorrhea.

1.2. Causes of slow menstruation

Many people still think that slow periods are a sign of pregnancy. But that's not all. Menstruation due to many causes:

  • Delayed pregnancy due to pregnancy

This is the most common and predictable cause that means you have a baby if you have sex.

Under the normal menstrual cycle, the uterine lining will be created monthly to prepare the fertilized egg for nesting. If not fertilized, the lining will be removed causing menstruation

Conversely, if conceived, of course, this lining will continue to nourish the fetus during pregnancy. So if you have a period of menstruation , you may be pregnant, use the test stick to know the best.

In the case of a delay in the menstrual period accompanied by lower abdominal pain, there may be an ectopic pregnancy, which is a dangerous phenomenon to be examined in time.

  • Delayed abdominal pain without having to become pregnant may be due to different causes:
  • Gynecological diseases such as fibroids, inflammation of the cervix gland, ovarian cysts, ovarian failure, ovarian inflammation. If the blood is clumpy, has an unpleasant odor or unusual color, the area has an unpleasant odor with abdominal pain under the simmer, even if the pain is severe, you may have these diseases.
  • Due to endocrine disorders: if endocrine balance, the menstrual cycle will also be regular. When abnormalities occur, the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary are malfunctioning. Since then the hormonal system will lose balance, causing menstrual disorders.
  • Sudden weight loss: an increase in weight loss will affect the amount of estrogen needed by the body to build up the lining of the uterus. Excessive production or lack of estrogen will cause the uterine lining to become unstable, causing delayed periods.
  • Stress, unscientific living regime such as working too much, often in a stressful state, sleeping irregularly will cause menstrual disorders.
  • Due to the side effects of the drug: if indicated to take a new drug or change the medicine is still in use, menstruation will be affected. Some drugs are easy to cause delay such as: antidepressants, hormonal drugs, tranquilizers, oral contraceptives, drugs used in chemotherapy ...
  • In addition, menopause may also be due to the use of many stimulants (alcohol, beer, cigarettes, etc.), early menopausal women are also causes of late menstruation, ...

2. Lower abdominal pain: a sign of many dangerous diseases

The lower abdomen contains many important organs of the body such as the colon, appendix, lower ureter, urinary tract, uterus (women), prostate (men). Therefore, any organ in the lower abdomen is represented by symptoms of lower abdominal pain.

Pain in the right and left pelvis is a sign of diseases such as colitis, rectal polyps, colon polyps, pain in the right ureter, bladder stones. For women with pain in the pelvic right, it may be manifestations of adnexitis, twisted ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, or dysmenorrhea ...

These diseases cause lower abdominal pain, accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, urination, sharpness, excessive urination, cloudy urine when bladder infection occurs. Minor, difficult, painful urination in prostate hyperplasia in men.

In diseases that cause lower abdominal pain, it is necessary to pay attention to emergency diseases such as appendicitis, twisted ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy ... These diseases, if not treated promptly, can cause many serious consequences. Can even be fatal.

Early detection of general diseases and gynecological diseases in particular will help the treatment process become more convenient and have better results.



Hepatitis B Vaccine Uses, Side Effects & Warnings

Hepatitis B is a disease that can cause severe liver complications as well as the health of patients. The disease is caused by the hepatitis B virus, which can be transmitted through blood, through sexual contact and from mother to child. Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective way to prevent disease.

1. Use of hepatitis B vaccine

Hepatitis B vaccine helps prevent hepatitis B and its consequences such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for all adults and children at risk of exposure to the hepatitis B virus .

Note: Hepatitis B vaccine does not protect against hepatitis caused by other factors such as hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus.

2. Indications and contraindications for hepatitis B vaccine

2.1. Point

Group of healthy people at high risk

  • Medical staff such as doctors, surgeons, dentists, nurses and nurses
  • Health workers often have to be exposed to blood
  • Staff in the laboratory
  • Families with people infected with hepatitis B virus, especially babies born to mothers with HBsAg (+) and HBeAg (+).

Group of patients

  • Patients who often have blood transfusions or blood products may have been infected with the hepatitis B virus
  • Immunocompromised patients
  • Patients with hemodialysis.

2.2. Contraindicated

  • People who are sensitive to any vaccine component. In particular, cases of hypersensitivity to the vaccine at the previous injection
  • People with congenital diseases
  • People with heart disease, kidney disease or liver disease
  • People with diabetes or malnutrition
  • People with blood cancer , malignant diseases in general
  • People with hypersensitivity.

3. Dosage and administration of hepatitis B vaccine

3.1. Dosage

  • Adults use the dose: 20μg / 1ml / dose.
  • Children use the dose: 10μg / 0.5ml / dose.

However, the dose also depends on the specific vaccine, you should consult your doctor.

3.2. How to use

Hepatitis B vaccine is indicated intramuscularly, not intravenously or intradermally. Adults inject in deltoid area, and children inject into thigh area.

Exceptions: People with bleeding disorders or thrombocytopenia may be injected under the skin.

The vaccine should be shaken well before injection.

3.3. Basic injection schedule:

You can choose one of the following two injections

Method 1 : Antibody titre is fast

  • Nose 1: The first injection: With the newborn will be injected in the first month after birth, preferably in the first 24 hours after birth ...
  • Nose 2: After 1 month after 1 month
  • Nose 3: After 2 months a month
  • Nose 4: Repeated after a year.

Method 2 : Antibody titre is high after the first 3 injections

  • Nose 1: The first injection. Infants will be given injections in the first month after birth, preferably in the first 24 hours after birth
  • Nose 2: After 1 month after 1 month
  • Nose 3: Six months after nose 2
  • Nose 4: Repeated after 5 years.

3.4. Quick vaccination schedule

For cases where the protection effect is as fast as the needle suspected to be stabbed by a hepatitis B virus, prepare to enter a region with a high prevalence of hepatitis B ....

  • Nose 1: The first injection
  • Nose 2: After nose 1 to seven (7) days
  • Nose 3: Twenty-one (21) days after nose 2.

4. Be cautious when using hepatitis B vaccine

Subjects with fever or acute infection should stop the hepatitis B vaccine. However, with mild infections there is no contraindication to this vaccine.

The incubation period of hepatitis B is long, so the patient may be infected with the virus before vaccination without knowing it. Therefore, vaccines cannot prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus in this case.

The immune response of the hepatitis B vaccine depends on many factors

  • Age: Men over 40 years of age have lower immune response
  • Fat
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Smoking habits
  • Inappropriate injections: Such as buttocks or injections in the skin
  • People with HIV / AIDS.

In these cases, there is usually a lower immune response, so consider taking additional doses.

For pregnant and lactating women: Hepatitis B vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women. But for pregnant women who are at high risk of getting hepatitis B virus, they can still be vaccinated. This vaccine is not indicated for breastfeeding women.

4. Unwanted effects of hepatitis B vaccine

Unexpected effects common

  • At the injection site: May appear transient pain, hard skin, pink rash.

Unexpected effects are rare

  • Body: After injection, there may be fatigue, discomfort, fever, and sensitive symptoms
  • On the central and peripheral nervous system: Headache, dizziness, paresthesia
  • On the digestive system: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea
  • On the hepatobiliary system: Changes in liver function test results
  • On musculoskeletal system: muscle pain, joint pain
  • On the skin and skin parts: Itching, hives, rash.

Unexpected effects are rare

  • Body: Anaphylactic reaction occurs
  • On cardiovascular: Lower blood pressure, fainting
  • On the central and peripheral nervous system: Paralysis, neuritis (including Guillain - Barré syndrome, glaucoma and polyneuropathy), encephalitis, meningitis, neuropathy, disease Brain
  • On the respiratory system: Symptoms of bronchospasm appear
  • On the peripheral cardiovascular system: Vasculitis
  • On the lymphatic system and the endothelial network: lymph node disease.