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Does Hepatitis B Pass Through Breast Milk?

Mothers infected with hepatitis B virus can breastfeed if the newborn is fully vaccinated to help eliminate the risk of transmission through breast milk, avoiding direct contact with the mother's serum secretions.

1. Can my mother get hepatitis B virus?

Currently, about 10-13% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis B virus, 44.7% are likely to transmit from mother to child.

  • The main route of transmission is when the fetus passes through the vagina.
  • Children who have been infected with hepatitis B virus from their mothers increase the incidence of liver and cirrhosis later.
  • Babies who are breastfed after birth only have between 3 and 10% of their babies.
  • If the mother becomes ill in the first 3 months of pregnancy, the rate of mother-to-child illness is 1%.
  • If the mother becomes ill in the third trimester, the rate of mother-to-child transmission is 10%.
  • If the mother becomes ill in the last 3 months of pregnancy, the rate of mother-to-child transmission is 67%.

The mother can still breastfeed if a special serum injection of 100 units of hepatitis B vaccine is given immediately after birth, then the child will be vaccinated against hepatitis B according to the 3-dose formula applied to babies. birth (immediately after birth, 2nd month after birth, 3rd month after birth). When your child is vaccinated against hepatitis B will also help prevent HBV infection from all other infections. The ability to protect children from hepatitis B infection is 90%.

During breastfeeding, if the mother has hepatitis B with diseases such as breast fractures, bleeding or damage to the breast, she should not breastfeed her baby directly, as she may have direct contact with secretions. mother's serum. Milk should be milked and treated (boiled or dehydrated) before feeding.

2. How to prevent hepatitis B

In the 6th month of pregnancy, HBsAg testing in the serum of pregnant women should be performed . If the mother is infected with the hepatitis B virus, additional testing should be done to assess the level of transmission.

For women who are not infected with the hepatitis B virus, they should be vaccinated in serum first or may be vaccinated during pregnancy.

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When Should I Be Concerned About Cholesterol?

Blood fats in the human body include total cholesterol and triglyceride. Whole cholesterol is also divided into two types: HDL - cholesterol (good) and LDL - cholesterol (bad).

1. Total cholesterol

Cholesterol is a part of bile and is present in red blood cells - cell membranes - muscle. The liver is the main organ that synthesizes cholesterol and is also the only part of esterification of cholesterol. In the human body, about 70% of cholesterol is esterified (combined with fatty acid) and the remaining 30% exists in free blood (plasma).

When tested, both types of cholesterol are not distinguishable but are often measured together. Therefore, calling total cholesterol is a combination of free cholesterol and cholesterol ester .

2. Quantify total cholesterol

Vietnam Cardiology Association recommends that all adults over 20 years of age should test four basic indicators of blood fat including: Total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Before the test, the patient must fast for at least 12 hours and only drink filtered water. The frequency of blood lipid tests is recommended at least every 5 years.

The way to calculate total cholesterol is explained as follows:

  • Less than 200 mg / dL (5.1 mmol / L): Ideal concentration and low risk of coronary artery disease.
  • Between 200 and 239 mg / dL (5.1 - 6.2 mmol / L): Patients should be aware of health problems when the test results are at this boundary level.
  • Greater than or equal to 240 mg / dL (6.2 mmol / L): The conclusive index increases blood cholesterol and is more than twice the risk of atherosclerosis.

High blood cholesterol levels can create coronary deposits, leading to the risk of heart attack patients. The blood cholesterol index increases with age and varies between men and women. Specifically, cholesterol levels in men are higher than women before the age of 50. However, the opposite will happen when both sexes are over 50 years old (female> male).

In addition to atherosclerosis, high total cholesterol in the blood also causes obstructive jaundice, diabetes and hypertension. On the other hand, reducing excessive cholesterol is also the cause of hyperthyroidism or Cushing's syndrome.

3. Other related lipid components

3.1. LDL – Cholesterol

LDL, short for Low Density Lipoproteins, means low density lipoprotein. This kind of bad cholesterol that we often know, causes negative effects on human health. When high levels of LDL occur in the blood, they will deposit in the artery walls of the heart and brain, gradually forming atherosclerotic plaques. This plaque causes the blood vessels to narrow and block, and even a sudden rupture. This will lead to acute cardiovascular situations such as a heart attack or brain stroke.

For this reason, LDL cholesterol is an important indicator to monitor besides determining total cholesterol . In particular, if LDL cholesterol level <100 mg / dL (<2.6 mmol / L) is considered optimal. The greater the index, the higher the risk, if it reaches ≥ 190 mg / dL (4.9 mmol / L), the maximum level is very dangerous.

3.2. HDL - Cholesterol

Not any type of cholesterol is harmful to human health and HDL - Cholesterol is an example. Only about 25-30% of total cholesterol in the blood, this high-density lipoprotein plays a role in transporting cholesterol from the blood back to the liver and especially bringing cholesterol away from atherosclerosis in the walls of blood vessels. The risk of atherosclerosis as well as other serious cardiovascular symptoms has since been reduced thanks to the above mechanism.

Patients need to quit smoking, keep their body weight from being overweight / obese and increase their physical activity to increase beneficial HDL cholesterol levels.

3.3. Triglycerides

Triglycerides are also one of the main components of lipids in the body. Increased triglycerides are common in people with unhealthy lifestyles and science. High levels of triglycerides in the blood often appear with increased total cholesterol , in particular increased bad LDL and good HDL.

According to medical experts' research, high blood triglycerides may be associated with the risk of cardiovascular complications. Triglyceride index <150 mg / dL (1.7 mmol / L) is considered normal and is concluded to increase at khi 500 mg / dL (,6 5.6 mmol / L).

Although the increase in total cholesterol in the blood causes many incalculable cardiovascular events, most patients with high total cholesterol do not see a clear external manifestation.

Because atherosclerosis progresses quietly, adults are not subjective, instead needing regular blood fat testing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle to ensure that the body is healthy. From inside.

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Ovarian Cysts And Pregnancy-Things To know

Ovarian cysts in pregnancy are often diagnosed by fetal ultrasound. Pregnant women may suffer from any type of cyst, but the most common is the corpus luteum, which is less common in malignant cysts that endanger the mother and fetus.

1. What is ovarian cyst?

Ovarian cysts are the most common tumor, accounting for 3.6% of gynecological diseases. The disease develops silently, with a long period of silence, but when it turns to malignant, it progresses very quickly. The most vulnerable period is in the age of childbearing. If not detected early, cysts can turn into ovarian cancer, affecting the ability to have children, can even harm the lives of women.

Ovarian cysts can develop and exist in many different forms with many dangerous complications, including twisted ovarian cysts are dangerous forms, life-threatening patients and diseases of all ages , especially women aged 30 and older.

2. Causes of ovarian cysts

There are 5 common causes of a recognized ovarian cyst, including:

  • The follicles develop incomplete, do not shed and do not absorb the fluid in the ovaries.
  • The blood vessels of the endometriosis areas in the ovary rupture causing bleeding to form follicles.
  • Excessive amount of Chorionic Gonadotropin leads to the formation of lutein cysts.
  • Excessive secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH).
  • The golden body developed leading to the appearance of the corpus luteum.

3. Management for pregnant women with ovarian cysts

For ovarian cysts during pregnancy, surgery will be considered more. Without accurate prediction of time and health status, it can be dangerous for both mother and fetus. Uncomplicated miscarriage and premature births can occur.

Pregnant women are diagnosed with ovarian cysts through routine antenatal care or fetal ultrasound. Any type of capsule may be, but is common, the corpus luteum (cystic cyst), rarely having malignant cysts. If the prognosis risk is high, the surgery is as soon as possible.

If an early surgery in the first 3 months of pregnancy is likely to cause miscarriage, the fetus should be operated after 16 weeks of age because at this time, the fetus has enough progesterone to nourish the fetus.

There is no need for surgery if the corpus luteum is present, this time is the time when the follicle has decreased in size or no longer developed. But the decision to wait so, pregnant women have to perform some required tests, have ultrasound to evaluate ovarian tumors carefully and monitor the progression of ovarian tumors closely.

If the tumor develops after 16 weeks, surgery should be performed immediately unless late detection in late pregnancy. Without surgery, it could be dangerous to the mother's life.

4. Complications of ovarian cysts during pregnancy

Fetal compression

Ovarian cysts during pregnancy affect the development of the fetus. It is associated with the development of size and is directly affected by the cyst, the fetus will suffer from the compression of the tumor. This pinch will significantly hinder the normal development of the fetus, making the baby not have much space to develop. Show more clearly in the last months of pregnancy. That is also the reason why pregnant women become pregnant more severe and always in a state of discomfort, heavy, bloating.

The risk of early miscarriage

Cysts when developing can be broken and twisted. These two complications are a high risk of premature miscarriage during the first few weeks of pregnancy. Not many cases are forced to suspend pregnancy to protect the health of pregnant women because once a pregnancy is discovered, it is also when the cyst is seriously complications to surgery.

However, not all cases have complications. Although ovarian cysts can still be pregnant, it can be safe for 9 months and 10 months for a mother to have a square child without any problems.

You must closely monitor your pregnancy and make good decisions, sometimes accepting unwanted situations.

5. Prevent ovarian tumors during pregnancy

Gynecology, ultrasound, especially the uterus and two ovaries. After that, you should go for antenatal care within the first 3 months of pregnancy to detect tumors of the uterus or ovaries.

Because after the first 3 months, the uterus will grow up with the development of the fetus, ovarian tumors will be difficult to touch when examined and difficult to observe with ultrasound, the ability to miss will be higher. Meanwhile, complications can occur at any time during pregnancy affecting the health and survival of both mother and child.

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What Is The First Sign Of Preeclampsia?

Pregnant women with a blood pressure reading of ≥ 140 / 90mmHg may be a sign of pre-eclampsia - a dangerous condition that increases the risk of stillbirth or premature birth for the baby and harms the health of the mother.

1. What is pre-eclampsia?

Pre-eclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication, usually occurring in the second half of pregnancy because of high blood pressure and signs of damage to other organs, usually the kidneys. Pregnant women with normal blood pressure may also have pre-eclampsia in the 21st week of pregnancy.

If the disease is not treated promptly, the disease can lead to eclampsia causing dangerous complications for the life of mother and baby.

About 6-8% of pregnant women have pre-eclampsia . It is possible to limit the possibility of disease by minimizing risk factors.

Many factors can increase the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women, including:

  • History of pre-eclampsia: History of yourself or your family getting sick.
  • Pregnant for the first time
  • Age: Pregnancy beyond the age of 40 increases the risk of pre-eclampsia
  • Overweight or obese.
  • Multidisciplinary pregnancy: Pre-eclampsia usually occurs at high rates in women with twins and third pregnancies.
  • Interval between pregnancies: If your interval between pregnancies is shorter than 2 years or longer than 10 years, you are at risk of pre-eclampsia.
  • History of disease: Hypertension, migraine, type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes , kidney disease, lupus, ...

2. Signs of pre-eclampsia

The characteristic sign when pregnant women have pre-eclampsia is the phenomenon of high blood pressure and proteinuria.

Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia often have:

  • Pregnancy hypertension: Blood pressure> 140/90 mmHg, suddenly increased after the 20th week of pregnancy.
  • Total urine analysis showed that urinary albumin> 300 mg / 24h or higher.

Severe pre-eclampsia : When blood pressure> 160/110 mmHg or one of two characteristics:

  • Urinary albumin> 3.5 g / 24h or higher.
  • Or have severe signs, such as oliguria (Urine <500 mL / 24h), kidney problems, headache, blurred vision, epigastric pain, acute pulmonary edema, heart failure.

The signs of preeclampsia manifest externally:

  • Edema: Normally, edema occurs only in pregnant women in the last 3 months and only mild swelling in the leg, usually in the afternoon, when resting, elevating the legs will end. If edema is a symptom of pre-eclampsia, it will suffer from full body edema, edema in the morning.
  • Severe headache.
  • Vision changes such as temporary loss of vision, eyes blurred, light sensitive.
  • Upper abdominal pain.
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Little urination.
  • Reducing blood platelets, high blood creatinine.
  • Decreased liver function, elevated liver enzymes.
  • Difficulty breathing due to fluid in the lungs.

Some external signs of pre-eclampsia can make women feel very vague, easily confused with other symptoms. Even, women may mistakenly think of a headache, fatigue due to pregnancy. Therefore, in addition to health care, nutritional supplements, pregnant women need regular visits to monitor.

In particular, if you have conditions, you should regularly check your blood pressure at home. Pregnant women with maximum blood pressure higher than 30mmHg or minimum blood pressure higher than 15mmHg compared to blood pressure at the time of not being pregnant need to pay attention and consult a doctor immediately to ensure health for both mother and baby.

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